Egypt in South Africa

The Middle Kingdom and Hyksos Period, 2040-782 BCE

As in the Predynastic Period, unification came from the south through a family from Luxor who formed the Eleventh Dynasty. The first prominent ruler from the Twelfth Dynasty was Amenemhat I.
Egypt became very prosperous under his reign, and those of his successors. So much so that Egypt dominated Nubia to the south and traded with Palestine to the northeast. Many literary masterpieces were written in this period. Expeditions went as far as the exotic land of Punt (possibly the area of modern-day Somalia and Eritrea). The last king of the Twelfth Dynasty was Amenemhat IV and a female pharaoh Sobeknefru after him.
The Thirteenth Dynasty, known as the Second Intermediate Period [1782-1570 BCE], started with another upheaval and very short reigns that weakened the power of the throne. At the same time foreigners called the Hyksos settled in the Delta at Avaris (Tell ed-Dhaba). They were probably from Western Asia as their pottery and building styles reveal strong links with this region.
A stela made in sunk-relief without inner details, a style that was very popular during the Middle Kingdom period. (c) Iziko Photo Archives